Suomen Riista


Refereed journal articles:


Nummi, P., Suontakanen, E.-M., Holopainen S. & Väänänen, V.-M. The effect of beaver facilitation on Common Teal: pairs and broods respond differently at the patch and landscape scales. Ibis

Holopainen, S., Arzel, C., Elmberg, J., Fox, A., Guillemain, M., Gunnarsson, G., Nummi, P., Sjoberg, K., Väänänen, V.-M., Alhainen, M. & Pöysä, H. 2018. Sustainable management of migratory European ducks: finding model species. – Wildlife Biology.


Pöysä, H., Elmberg, J., Gunnarsson, G., Holopainen, S., Nummi, P. & Sjöberg, K. 2017. Recovering Whooper Swans do not cause decline in Eurasian Wigeon via grazing. – The Journal of Ornithology.

Pöysä, H., Elmberg, J., Gunnarsson, G., Holopainen, S., Nummi, P. & Sjöberg, K. 2017. Habitat associations and habitat change: seeking explanation for population decline in breeding wigeon Anas penelope. – Hydrobiologia 785: 207–217.

Yrjölä, R.A., Holopainen, S., Pakarinen, R., Tuoriniemi, S.,  Luostarinen, M., Mikkola-Roos, M., Nummi, P. &  Väänänen, V.-M. 2017. The Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis in the archipelago of southern Finland – population growth and nesting dispersal. – Ornis Fennica.


Nummi, P., Väänänen, V.-M., Holopainen S. & Pöysä H. 2016. Duck–fish competition in boreal lakes – a review. – Ornis Fennica 93: 67-76.

Pöysä, H., Rintala, J., Johnson, D.H, Kauppinen, J., Lammi, E., Nudds, T. D. & Väänänen, V.-M. 2016: Environmental variability and population dynamics: Do European and North American ducks play by the same rules? –  Ecology and Evolution 6: 7004–7014.

Thompson, S., Vehkaoja, M. & Nummi, P. 2016. Beaver-created deadwood dynamics in the boreal forest. – Forest Ecology and Management 360: 1-8. Online.

Vehkaoja, M., Nummi, P. & Rikkinen, J. 2016. Beavers promote calicioid diversity in boreal forest landscapes. – Biodiversity and Conservation. Online.

Väänänen, V.-M., Pöysä, H. & Runko, P. 2016: Nest and brood stage association between ducks and small colonial gulls in boreal wetlands. – Ornis Fennica 93: 55–66.


Arzel, C. & Elmberg, J. 2015. Time use and foraging behaviour in pre-breeding dabbling ducks Anas spp. in sub-arctic Norway. Journal of Ornithology 156: 499-513.

Arzel, C., Rönkä, M., Tolvanen, H., Aarras, N., Kamppinen, M. & Vihervaara, P. 2015. Species diversity, abundance and brood numbers of breeding waterbirds in relation to habitat properties in an agricultural watershed. Ann Zool Fennici 52:00-00. Online

Holopainen, S.Arzel, C., Dessborn, L.,   Elmberg, J., Gunnarsson, G., Nummi, P., Pöysä, H. & Sjöberg, K. 2015. Habitat use in ducks breeding in boreal freshwater wetlands: a review. – Eur J Wildl Res 61:339–363

Nummi, P., Holopainen, S., Rintala, J. & Pöysä, H. 2015. Mechanisms of density dependence in ducks: importance of space and per capita food. – Oecologia 177: 679-688.

Vehkaoja, M. & Nummi, P. 2015. Beaver facilitation in the  conservation of boreal anuran communities. – Herpetozoa. 28 (1/2): 75-87. Vehkaoja_Nummi_Beaver__Anuran_conservation

Vehkaoja, M., Nummi, P., Rask, M., Tulonen, T. & Arvola, A. 2015. Spatiotemporal dynamics of boreal landscapes with ecosystem engineers: beavers influence the biogeochemistry of small lakes. – Biogeochemistry. 124: 405-415. Online

Wahlroos, O., Valkama, P., Mäkinen, E., Ojala, A., Vasander, H., Väänänen, V.-M., Halonen, A., Lindén, L., Nummi, P., Ahponen, H., Lahti, K., Vessman, T., Rantakokko, K. & Nikinmaa E. 2015. Urban wetland parks in Finland: improving water quality and creating endangered habitats. – International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management. Online



Arzel, C., Dessborn, L., Pöysä, H., Nummi, P., Elmberg, J. & Sjöberg, K. 2014. Early springs and breeding performance in two sympatric bird species: does migration distance matter?  – Ibis 156: 288-298. Suomenkielinen seloste RKTL:n sivuilla

Davis, J.B., Guillemain, M., Kaminski, R.M., Arzel, C. & Eadie, J. M. 2014. Habitat and resource use by northern hemispheric waterfowl during fall and winter. – Wildfowl. Accepted.

Holopainen, S., Nummi, P.  & Pöysä, H. Breeding in the stable boreal landscape: lake habitat variability drives brood production in the teal (Anas crecca). – Freshwater Biology 59: 2621–2631. DOI: 10.1111/fwb.12458

Lindh, E., Ek-Kommonen, C., Väänänen, V-M., Vaheri, A., Vapalahti, O. & Huovilainen, A. 2014. Molecular epidemiology of H9N2 viruses in Finland. – Veterinary Microbiology 172: 548–554. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.06.020.

Niemi, M., Jääskeläinen, N.C., Nummi, P., Mäkelä, T. & Norrdahl, K. 2014. Dry paths effectively reduce road mortality of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates. — Journal of Environmental Management Volume 144: 51–57.

Nummi, P. & Holopainen, S. 2014. Whole-community facilitation by beaver: ecosystem engineer increases waterbird diversity. — Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. Online.

Pöysä, H. & Väänänen, V.-M. 2014. Drivers of breeding numbers in a long-distance migrant, the Garganey (Anas querquedula): effects of climate and hunting pressure. – Journal of Ornithologie, DOI 10.1007/s10336-014-1051-y. Online.

Stafford, J.D., Janke, A.K., Anteau, M.J., Pearse, A.T., Fox A.D., Elmberg, J., Straub, J.N., Eichholz, M.W. & Arzel, C. 2014. Spring migration of waterfowl in the Northern Hemisphere: a conservation perspective. Wildfowl. Accepted.

Tolvanen, H., Rönkä, M., Vihervaara, P., Kamppinen, M., Arzel, C., Aarras, N. & Thessler, S. 2014. Spatial information in ecosystem service assessment: data applicability in the cascade model context. Journal of Land Use Science.


Guillemain, M., Fox, A., Pöysä, H., Väänänen, V-M., Christensen, T. K., Triplet, P., Schricke, P. & Korner-Nievergelt, F. 2013 Autumn survival inferred from wing age ratios: Wigeon juvenile survival half that of adults at best? — Journal of Ornithology. 154 (2): 351–358. Suomenkielinen seloste RKTL:n sivuilla

Gunnarsson, G., Elmberg, J., Pöysä, H., Nummi, P., Sjöberg, K., Dessborn, L. & Arzel, C. 2013. Density dependence in breeding ducks: a review of the evidence. — Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 59: 305–321.
Suomenkielinen seloste RKTL:n sivuilla

Nummi, P. & Kuuluvainen, T. 2013. Forest disturbance by an ecosystem engineer: beaver in boreal forest landscapes. — Bor. Env. Res. 18 (suppl. A): 13–24.

Nummi, P., Paasivaara, A., Suhonen, S. & Pöysä, H. 2013. Wetland use by brood-rearing female ducks in a boreal forest landscape: the importance of food and habitat. — Ibis 155: 68-79.                                       Suomenkielinen seloste RKTL:n sivuilla

Nummi, P., Väänänen, V-M., Pakarinen, R. & Pienmunne, E. 2013. The Red-throated Diver (Gavia stellata) in human-disturbed habitats – building up a local population with the aid of artificial rafts. — Ornis Fennica. 90: 16-22.

Pöysä, H., Dessborn, L., Elmberg, J., Gunnarsson, G., Nummi, P., Sjöberg, K., Suhonen, S. & Söderquist, P. 2013. Harvest Mortality in North American Mallards: A Reply to Sedinger and Herzog. — The Journal of Wildlife Management 77: 653–654.


Nummi, P., Väänänen, V-M., Rask, M., Nyberg, K. & Taskinen, K. 2012.  Competitive effects of fish in structurally simple habitats: perch, invertebrates, and goldeneye in small boreal lakes. — Aquatic Sciences. 74: 343-350.

Parker, H., Nummi, P., Hartman, G. & Rosell, F. 2012. Should (and can) the invasive North American beaver Castor canadensis be eradicated from Eurasia? — Wildlife Biology 18: 354–365.

 Väänänen, V-M., Nummi, P., Pöysä, H., Rask, M. & Nyberg, K. 2012. Fish-duck interactions in boreal lakes in Finland as reflected by abundance correlations. — Hydrobiologia. 697 (1):  85-93.
Suomenkielinen seloste RKTL:n sivuilla

Lindh, E., Ek-Kommonen, C., Väänänen, V.-M., Alasaari, J., Vaheri, A., Vapalahti, O. & Huovilainen, A. 2012. Molecular epidemiology of outbreak-associated and wild waterfowl- derived Newcastle disease virus strains in Finland, including an undescribed class I genotype’. – J. Clinical Microbiology 50: 3664-3673.


Nummi, P., Kattainen, S., Ulander, P. & Hahtola, A. 2011. Bats benefit from beaver: a facilitative link between aquatic and terrestrial food webs. — Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 851–859.

Sjöberg, K., Gunnarsson, G., Pöysä, H., Elmberg, J. & Nummi, P. 2011. Born to cope with climate change? Experimentally manipulated hatching time does not affect duckling survival in the mallard Anas platyrhynchos. — European Journal of Wildlife Research. 57: 505–516.
Suomenkielinen seloste RKTL:n sivuilla

Suhonen, S., Nummi, P. & Pöysä, H. 2011. Long term stability of habitats and use by ducks in boreal lakes. — Boreal Environmental Research 16 (suppl. B):71–80.
Suomenkielinen seloste RKTL:n sivuilla

Väänänen, V-M., Nummi, P., Lehtiniemi, T., Luostarinen, V-M. & Mikkola-Roos, M. 2011. Habitat complementation in urban barnacle geese: from safe nesting islands to productive foraging lawns. — Boreal Environment Research 16 (suppl. B): 26-34.


Guillemain, M., Bertout, J-M., Christensen, T. K., Pöysä, H., Väänänen, V. M., Triplet, P., Schricke, V. & Fox, A. D. 2010. How many juvenile Teal Anas crecca reach the wintering grounds? Flyway-scale survival rate inferred from wing age-ratios. — Journal of Ornithology 151: 51-60
Suomenkielinen seloste RKTL:n sivuilla

Nyberg, K., Vuorenmaa, J., Tammi, J., Nummi, P., Väänänen, V. M., Mannio, J. & Rask, M. 2010. Re-establishment of perch in three lakes recovering from acidification: rapid growth associated with abundant food resources. — Boreal Environment Research. 15: 480-490.

Dessborn, L., Elmberg, J., Nummi, P., Pöysä, H. & Sjöberg, K. 2009. Hatching in dabbling ducks and emergence in chironomids: a case of predator-prey synchrony?  —  Hydrobiologia 636: 319–329.

Hyvönen, T. & Nummi, P. 2008. Habitat dynamics of beaver Castor canadensis at two spatial scales. — Wildlife Biol. 14: 302–308.

Nummi, P. & Hahtola, A. 2008. The beaver as an ecosystem engineer facilitates teal breeding. — Ecography 31: 519–524.

Elmberg, J., Nummi, P., Pöysä, H., Sjöberg, K., Gunnarsson, G., Clausen, P., Guillemain, M., Rodrigues, D. & Väänänen, V-M. 2006. The scientific basis for a new and sustainable management of migratory European ducks. — Wildlife Biology 12: 121–127.

Gunnarsson, G., Elmberg, J., Sjöberg, K., Pöysä, H. & Nummi, P. 2006. Experimental evidence for density-dependent survival in mallard (Anas platychynchos) ducklings. — Oecologia 149: 203-213.

Nummi, P., Väänänen, V-M. & Malinen, J. 2006. Alien grazing: indirect effects of muskrats on invertebrates. — Biological invasions. 8: 993-999.

Elmberg, J., Gunnarson, G., Sjöberg, K., Pöysä, H. & Nummi, P. 2005. Within season sequential density-dependence in breeding success in mallards. — Oikos 108: 582–590.

Elmberg, J., Nummi, P., Pöysä, H., Gunnarson, G. & Sjöberg, K. 2005. Early breeding teal Anas crecca use the best lakes and have the highest reproductive success (pdf). — Ann. Zool. Fennici 42: 37–43.

Gunnarson, G., Elmberg, J., Sjöberg, K., Pöysä, H. & Nummi, P. 2004. Why are there so many empty patches? Food limits survival in breeding ducks. — Can. J. Zool. 82: 1698–1703.

Pöysä, H., Elmberg, J., Gunnarson, G., Nummi, P. & Sjöberg, K. 2004. Ecological basis of sustainable harvesting: is the prevailing paradigm of compensatory mortality still valid? — Oikos 104: 612–615.

Elmberg, J., Nummi, P., Pöysä, H. & Sjöberg, K. 2003. Breeding success of sympatric dabbling ducks in relation to population density and food resources (pdf). — Oikos 100: 333–341.

Nummi, P. & Saari, L. 2003. Density-dependent decline of breeding success in an introduced, increasing mute swan Cygnus olor population. — J. Avian. Biol. 34: 105–111.

Nummi, P. & Väänänen, V-M. 2001. High overlap in diets of sympatric dabbling ducks – an effect of food abundance? (pdf) — Ann. Zool. Fennici 38: 123–130.

Pöysä, H., Sjöberg, K., Elmberg, J. & Nummi, P. 2001. Pair formation among experimentally introduced mallards Anas platyrhynchos reflects habitat quality. — Ann. Zool. Fennici 38: 179–184.

Rask, M., Pöysä, H., Nummi, P. & Karppinen, C. 2001. Recovery of the perch (Perca fluviatilis) population in an acidified lake and subsequent responses in macroinvertebrates and the common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula). — Water Air Soil Pollution 130: 1367–1372.

Väänänen, V.-M. 2001. Hunting disturbance and the timing of autumn migration in Anas species. – Wildlife Biology 7: 3-9.

Elmberg, J., Sjöberg, K., Pöysä, H. & Nummi, P. 2000. Abundance-distribution relationships across trophic levels: the case of lake-nesting birds versus water beetles. — J. Biogeogr. 27: 821–828.

Hyvönen, T. & Nummi, P. 2000. Activity traps and corers: differences in the catch. — Hydrobiologia 432: 121–125.
Nummi, P., Pöysä, H., Sjöberg, K. & Elmberg, J. 2000. Individual behaviour indicates resource limitation: an experiment with mallard ducklings. — Can. J. Zool. 78: 1891–1895.

Nudds, T. D., Pöysä, H., Elmberg, J., Sjöberg, K. & Nummi, P. 2000. Ecomorphology in breeding Holarctic dabbling ducks: the importance of lamellar density and body lenght varies with the shape of wetland basins and complexity of vegetation. — Oikos 91: 583–588.

Pöysä, H., Sjöberg, K., Elmberg, J. & Nummi, P. 2000. Nesting mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) forecast brood stage food limitation when selecting habitat: experimental evidence. — Oecologia 122: 582–586.

Sjöberg, K., Pöysä, H., Elmberg, J. & Nummi, P. 2000. Response of mallard ducklings to variation in habitat quality – a field experiment of resource limitation (pdf). — Ecology 81: 329–335.

Väänänen, V.-M.  2000. Predation risk associated with nesting in gull colonies by two Aythya species: observations and an experimental test. – J. Avian Biology 31: 31-35.


Kauppinen, J. & Väänänen, V.-M. 1999. Factors affecting changes in waterfowl populations in eutrophic wetlands in the Finnish lake district. – Wildlife Biology 7: 73-81.

Pöysä, H., Elmberg, J., Sjöberg, K. & Nummi, P. 1998. Habitat selection rules in breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): a test of two competing hypotheses. — Oecologia 114: 283–287.

Elmberg, J., Pöysä, H., Sjöberg, K. & Nummi, P. 1997. Interspecific interactions and co-existence in dabbling ducks: observations and an experiment. — Oecologia 111: 129-136.

Nummi, P. & Pöysä, H. 1997. Population and community level responses in Anas-species to patch disturbance caused by an ecosystem engineer, the beaver. — Ecography 21: 580–584.

Nummi, P. 1996. Wildlife introductions to a mammal deficient area: Nordic Countries. — Wildl. Biol. 3: 221-226.

Nummi, P., Hokkanen, H., Sjöberg, K. & Dunier, M. 1996. Preface. Ecology of introduced, exotic wildlife: Fundamental and economic aspects. — Wildl. Biol. 2: 129-130.

Pöysä, H., Elmberg, J., Nummi, P. & Sjöberg, K. 1996. Are ecomorphological associations among dabbling ducks consisted at different spatial scales? — Oikos 76: 608-612.

Nummi, P. & Pöysä, H. 1995. Breeding success of ducks in relation to food and habitat structure. — Ibis 137: 145-150.

Nummi, P. & Pöysä, H. 1995. Habitat use of duck broods and juveniles of different age. — Wildl. Biol. 1: 181-187.

Nummi, P., Elmberg, J., Pöysä, H. & Sjöberg, K. 1995. Occurrence and density of mallard and green-winged teal in relation to prey size distribution and food abundance. — Ann. Zool. Fennici 32: 385-390.

Elmberg, J., Nummi, P., Pöysä, H. & Sjöberg, K. 1994. Relationships between species number, lake size and resource diversity in assemblages of breeding waterfowl. — J. Biogeogr. 21: 75-84.

Elmberg, J. Sjöberg, K., Nummi, P. & Pöysä, H. 1994. Patterns of lake acidity and waterfowl communities. — Hydrobiologia 279/280: 201-206.

Nummi, P., Elmberg, J., Pöysä, H. & Sjöberg, K. 1994. Habitat distribution of mallard in relation to food, vegetation structure, and population density. — Hydrobiologia 279-280: 247-252.

Pöysä, H., Elmberg, J., Nummi, P. & Sjöberg, K. 1994. Species composition of dabbling duck assemblages: Ecomorphological patterns compared with null models. — Oecologia 98: 193-200.

Pöysä, H., Rask, M. & Nummi, P. 1994. Acidification and ecological interaction at higher trophic levels in small forest lakes: the perch and the common goldeneye. — Ann. Zool. Fennici 31: 397-404.

Nummi, P. 1993. Food niche relations of two sympatric ducks, green-winged teal and mallard. — Can. J. Zool. 71: 49-55.

Nummi, P. & Pöysä, H. 1993. Habitat associations of ducks during different phases of the breeding season. — Ecography 16: 319-328.

Elmberg, J., Nummi, P., Pöysä, H. & Sjöberg, K. 1993. Factors affecting species number and density of dabbling duck guilds in North Europe. — Ecography 16: 251-260.

Elmberg, J., Nummi, P., Pöysä, H. & Sjöberg, K. 1992. Do intruding predators and trap position affect the reliability of catches in activity traps?  — Hydrobiologia 239: 187-193.

Nummi, P. 1992. The importance of beaver ponds to waterfowl broods: an experiment and natural tests. — Ann.Zool Fennici 29: 47-55.

Pöysä, H. & Nummi, P. 1992. Comparing two methods in collecting waterfowl habitat use data. — Bird Study 39: 124-131.


Nummi, P. 1989. Simulated effects of the beaver on vegetation, invertebrates and ducks. — Ann. Zool. Fennici 26: 43-52.